整形外科的缝合技巧

米拉德《整形外科原则》的缝合技巧:

无论手术设计的如何巧妙,手术操作的技巧,包括缝合技巧,在伤口愈合和最终效果方面将是一个重要的因素。某些缝合技巧会使缝合更便利。
1.良好的皮下和皮内埋置,缝合位置有助于死腔的关闭和消除皮肤的缝合张力。同样皮肤缝合也可以消除组织死腔。

2.一个最有效的皮肤间断缝合,是在近皮缘处垂直或最好向外侧转动进针,包括真皮的良好缝合和确保创缘外翻。

3.由松弛侧向固定侧缝合,即首先由游离皮片边进针,然后经受植区皮肤缺损之固定边缘出针。这种顺序比由固定边缘进针,然后试图用针钩缝不稳定游离皮片边缘更好。

4.将薄皮缘与厚皮缘缝合时,在薄皮缘处浅层进针要稍深些,然后在厚皮缘处浅些出针,这样可使双侧皮缘平整对合。

5.当一侧创缘比另一侧要低时,由高侧创缘浅层进针,然后在低侧创缘稍深位置出针缝合。由低向高缝合造成缝线由低侧穿出。缝线长端向上牵拉打第一个结时,就会使低侧创缘向上与对侧创缘处于同一水平。(植皮缝合时,有时皮片与切口要不不能完全覆盖较厚的瘢痕切口,要不覆盖太多,造成部分皮片重叠或皮片多出瘢痕切缘太多,一皮源浪费,二切缘植皮成活不好,这时,充分拉直缝线两端,稍微抖动几下,很可能皮片与受区就很好的贴牢了,而且皮缘不太宽的情况下,该法可使皮缘与切缘很好重叠,没有皮片游离于创缘,也可使较厚的瘢痕切缘不因皮片未能完全覆盖贴牢而影响外观,此为导师实践摸索的很灵光、很实用有效的经验方法,各位和本人一样的新手可慢慢摸索、体会)

6.为获得最整齐的创缘缝合,精细的缝线比金属夹或微孔胶带更为有效。金属线很少产生异物反应,丝线更易于缝合操作,涤纶、普洛灵及尼龙线则稳定而富有弹性。单线针比褥式缝合更好,因为2个针眼通常好于4个针眼。除此通常情况外,对于足底、手掌、阴囊、耳后区和斜形切开的创缘,褥式缝合会起到较有效的作用。根据力学的微型Lillputian分布,用缝线在靠近皮缘处缝合伤口是有益的。如果缝线距离创缘太远,就会遗留阶梯状的缝线压痕,要去除这种压痕,就需牺牲太多的组织。对关闭伤口时有张力,且需保留缝线较长时间的部位,在某些特别要避免缝线压痕的部位,最好用得麦隆(Dermalon)缝线形皮内缝合。这样不但可保留较长时间,也无缝线压痕的危险。皮内缝合线最好以每隔5.08cm(2英寸)或小于5.08cm(2英寸)的距离穿出皮肤后再进入皮内,这样可缩短拆线时间,拆线也更容易些。

仔细观察瘢痕整形技艺大师,弗吉尼亚州福尔斯彻奇的Alfred F. Borges 的W-整形术缝合操作,就会知道应该怎样更好的学习技艺。在全面认识到高超技艺的重要价值后,Borges4982年写道:

最佳的手术技术本身不是成功的保证,在一项手术后,要获得细小缝线瘢痕的决定因素之一,不是如此之多的有特点的缝合技术,而是切口是否与皮肤张力松弛线行走一致。

这里是Borges技术的一些基本规则:

1.沿皮肤张力线“RSTL”(Relaxed Skin Tension Line)行走方向选择手术切口,其瘢痕将获得最佳美观和功能效果;

2.对于张力线(ALT, Antitension line)的外壳显露手术切口,曲线的皮肤切口在愈合方面优于直线ALT切口,因为其可提供更宽大的显露和形成一条良好的富有弹性的术后曲线瘢痕;

3.对抗张力线的瘢痕可通过锯齿状瘢痕修整手术(W或Z改形术)加以改善。该技术可以改变瘢痕的方向,并将其分割成短小的直线瘢痕。任何面部没有按RSTL行走的瘢痕,都可经W成形术或Z成形术进行修正而加以改善,条件是先前没有太多的皮肤缺损。

4.皮肤张力是瘢痕形成的基本因素,皮肤张力的形成受皮肤缺损大小、区域、走向、类型、瘢痕长度及病人年龄的影响;

5.在大部分情况下,宽大和(或)增生的瘢痕不适合用任何瘢痕修整手术。简单切除一条因伤口自行愈合和棱形切除瘢痕后关闭创面所形成的宽大和(或)增生性瘢痕,将不可避免地在手术后再次形成一条宽大和(或)增生的瘢痕;

6.不要轻易去行瘢痕修整,除非你有理由确定,你可以部分或全部改变形成不理想瘢痕的因素,或你可以承担整修术可能会导致比原先瘢痕更差的风险;

7.当处理一条严重凹陷瘢痕或一条绞索状突起瘢痕是,Z改形术首选方法,因为Z改形术可以通过组织的交叉插入,消除和改变张力,达到明显的平衡作用;

8.在纠正半环状隆起瘢痕畸形是,治疗目标不应包括正常皮下脂肪组织的隆起,而应针对弧形皮肤瘢痕所致的束带状收缩;

9.缝合时最常见的技术过错是皮肤缝线结扎得太紧。

约翰霍普金斯医院的William S. Halstead在1890年就提醒外科医生:“由缝合合结扎而造成的血循环障碍,常常是感染创面化脓的直接原因。”

注意张力缝线痕迹

在缝合时,可在缝线的小范围内形成张力环。尽管撕裂伤、手术切口所形成的瘢痕无法避免,但永久的缝线痕迹是可以避免的。犹如猎人可依据脚印寻找到一只野兽一样,人们可以通过缝线痕迹来认识一位外科医生。如果别人将通过这些缝线痕迹来认识我们,这表明我们应该仔细检讨一下,这种因缝合而造成的潜在皮肤血循环不良的原因。当将缝线的结扎得太紧时,不但会切割皮肤,而且会形成炎性水肿,并将导致压力性皮肤坏死、感染可能。

1. 施行间断缝合时,对于一个较短的直线形伤口,可先在伤口的两端各做一个缝合,再将两端的缝线拉紧,使伤口两侧的皮肤自然对合,然后再在两端之间进行间断缝合。对于一个不规则的伤口,应该先选尖角或突出部分进行缝合,以后再用等分缝合法将全部伤口缝合。

2. 有些伤口,例如切削伤伤口,其边缘的厚度常在两侧各不相同,即有时一侧较厚,而另一侧较薄。这时,为了求得进针的深度能在伤口两侧彼此相同,其与伤口的距离亦不相同。通常皆需在较厚侧距离伤口边缘较近,在较薄侧距伤口边缘较远。

3. 缝合的伤口如较深且稍有张力,则在缝合时最好采用褥式缝合法或远-近、近-远缝合法,垂直褥式缝合法亦称“在端”褥式缝合法(Mcmillen氏法),它在缝合皮肤边缘同时可以将皮下组织缝合。远-近、近-远缝合法亦称翖翼缝合法(Bolster氏法),它在缝合皮肤边缘以后再在距离皮肤边缘较远处再作一个缝扣,减少皮肤边缘的张力。

各种褥式缝合法或远-近、近-远缝合法续前,尽管整形科使用该类方法不多,一起带上。

真皮缝合法及皮下缝合法

1. 真皮缝合和皮下缝合的区别:

1) 真皮缝合是选择性缝合真皮的方法。其目的是减张,以防止一期愈合后的瘢痕在形成稳定性瘢痕前的数个月期间因持续的张力作用而变宽。

2) 皮下缝合:一般并非单纯的真皮缝合,而是包括皮下组织的缝合,主要作用是为了闭合死腔。虽有一定的减张作用,但达不到减张缝合的减张效果。

真皮缝合中缝线的位置:初学者最容易犯的错误是真皮缝合的位置过浅(如下图A)。虽然这种缝合方法稍微带有真皮,并可很好地对合伤口边缘,但缝线易外露。最理想的缝合方法如图B,使缝线位于较深位置,并呈松弛的椭圆形。

(我们平时在缝合张力较大部位如腹部取皮处,采取与切口平行而不是垂直的方法进针做真皮缝合应该基于此道理)

不必要进行真皮缝合的部位:手掌,足底,眼睑及与皮纹相平行的部位粘膜,阴囊等处。
应该行真皮缝合的部位:头皮、躯干多处及下肢等。


4. 阶梯缝合技术:
a. 阶梯形切除瘢痕,阶梯状切开并暴露深层组织,例如隆乳术,这样,我们以同样阶梯形式缝合,可安全放心的闭合切口。这种切口修复方法相对更安全,特别是切缘张力较大时,阶梯状缝合使外源性植入物或自身移植物(如乳房假体、移植骨、软骨)更不容易外露。由于阶梯状缝合使张力能够分布并分散到不同的层面,切口在不同的层面修复,故植入或移植物几乎不可能外露。

b. 临床应用证实,该方法或许可拥有任何表浅伤口或瘢痕切口的修复。由于该方法降低了瘢痕的挛缩力的扩展或凹陷幅度,故愈合后局部组织通常可维持原来正常的厚度,保持一个平整的外观。

“阶梯形”切口应用

“梯形”切口及“外翻”式切口前者我们在切除前额 中部、下巴及其他部位瘢痕,尤其是凹陷性瘢痕可灵活应用。

后者,我们在取全厚皮尤其是腹部供区脂肪较厚是可参考使用,减少修剪额外多出脂肪的时间,以便更好的缝合。

“猫耳”的处理:

顺便学学上帖所提外国人头顶植皮怎样打包吧,结合我们实践中确实有不少植皮皮缘与切缘原位健康组织因打包缝线压迫影响血运或打包时受力不均匀,致使周边植皮活得更差甚至拆线后裂开,或因此而推迟部分拆线,某些部位(如血供好、组织不稚嫩或某些凹凸不平之处)植皮还是值得我们借鉴的,画了个草图(绿色标记线可能都是成对的),为方便理解,说明一下:植皮与切口正常组织的间断缝合线(外人以可吸收线缝合)直接剪短,而在切口外围约1cm的地方以丝线再次缝合,留长线打包,他们这种方式对创缘正常组织和植皮的血供影响要小些,而且植皮打包后受力更均匀,对植皮完全成活很有利。

不规则创口“呈角”创口缝合:

三角形尖端的缝合法:先从一侧皮肤进针,从创缘内出针后再横行穿过三角形皮瓣尖端的真皮下或皮下,然后由对侧创缘相应厚度进针,穿出皮肤,轻轻拉拢结扎,使三角瓣尖端与两边皮肤对合好。

不规则创口“不等长或等高”创口缝合:


常见头面部微整形视频:

来源 | 网络

整形外科的缝合技巧》上有1,947条评论

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